- © 2011 by the Seismological Society of America
It is well known that site effects often contribute to earthquake damage. The first time that site effects during an earthquake were pointed out in India was by MacMurdo (1823) for the 1819 Mw 7.8 earthquake (Figure 1). He wrote in his report, “At Anjar, half of the town, which is situated on low rocky ridges, suffered comparatively nothing; whilst the other half, upon a slope to a plain of springs and swamps, into which the town is drained, was entirely overturned.”
Site effects at Anjar city were noticed again during the 1956 Mw 6.0 Anjar earthquake and also during the 2001 Mw 7.6 earthquake (Figure 1). At the time of the 1956 event, Tandon (1959) noted, “At Anjar, it has already been mentioned earlier that both in 1819 and also in the present earthquake, the eastern portions of the town built on soft ground suffered extensive damage while the western portions built on trap rock foundations escaped with only minor damage.”
Recently, EERI 2002 reported for the 2001 Bhuj earthquake:
...damage was primarily restricted to the five wards (3, 4, 5, 9, and 10) of the old Anjar town. Wards 3, 4, and 10 in old Anjar sustained near total collapse of all buildings. These wards were also damaged during the 1956 Anjar earthquake. Ward 10 is apparently reclaimed from a 300–400 years old pond. Wards 5 and 9 sustained lower level of damages in both this earthquake and the 1956 event...
as shown in Figure 2. In this article, we use high-resolution satellite imagery (GSDMA 2008) to categorize Anjar city into three types of scenarios: severely damaged, less damaged, and undamaged (Figure 3) as a result of the 2001 earthquake. The severely damaged area is clearly shown in the eastern part of old Anjar city (Figure 3 …